The theory of relativity usually encompasses two interrelated theories by Albert Einstein: special relativity and general relativity. Special relativity applies to all physical phenomena in the absence of gravity. General relativity explains the law of gravitation and its relation to other forces of nature. It applies to the cosmological and astrophysical realm, including astronomy and spacetime.
The theory transformed theoretical physics and astronomy during the 20th century. Superseding a 200-year-old theory of mechanics created primarily by Isaac Newton. It introduced concepts including spacetime as a unified entity of space and time> Relativity of simultaneity, kinematic and gravitational time dilation, and length contraction. In the field of physics. Relativity improved the science of elementary particles and their fundamental interactions, along with ushering in the nuclear age. With relativity, cosmology and astrophysics predicted extraordinary astronomical phenomena such as neutron stars, black holes, and gravitational waves.
Spacetime Relativity in Postulate
Special relativity is a theory of the structure of spacetime. It was introduced in Einstein’s 1905 paper “On the Electrodynamics of Moving Bodies”. Special relativity is based on two postulates which are contradictory in classical mechanics:
- The laws of physics are the same for all observers in any inertial frame of reference relative to one another (principle of relativity).
- The speed of light in a vacuum is the same for all observers, regardless of their relative motion or of the motion of the light source.
The resultant theory copes with experiment better than classical mechanics. For instance, postulate 2 explains the results of the Michelson–Morley experiment. Moreover, the theory has many surprising and counter intuitive consequences. Some of these are:
- Relativity of simultaneity: Two events, simultaneous for one observer, may not be simultaneous for another observer if the observers are in relative motion.
- Time dilation: Moving clocks are measured to tick more slowly than an observer’s “stationary” clock.
- Length contraction: Objects are measured to be shortened in the direction that they are moving with respect to the observer.
- Maximum speed is finite: No physical object, message or field line can travel faster than the speed of light in a vacuum.
- The effect of Gravity can only travel through space at the speed of light, not faster or instantaneously.
- Mass–energy equivalence: E = mc2, energy and mass are equivalent and transmutable.
- Relativistic mass, idea used by some researchers.
Spacetime and Relativity Science
In physics, spacetime is any mathematical model which fuses the three dimensions of space and one dimension of time. There into a single four dimensional manifold. Spacetime diagrams can be used to visualize relativistic effects. Such as why different observers perceive where and when events occur differently.
The underline matter that we must known for humanbeing that is different between rubh and god, and possible for them to bend the space and time like a distcret room or a serial number.
The logical consequence of taking these postulates together is the inseparable joining together of the four dimensions. To assumed as independent of space and time. Many counter intuitive consequences emerge. In addition to being independent of motion the light source, the speed of light is constant magnitude regardless the frame of reference in which it is measured. The distances and even temporal ordering pairs of events change when measured in different inertial frames of reference (this is the relativity of simultaneity); and the linear additivity of velocities no longer holds true.